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Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 3:27:16 AM

His Majesty's Ethiopia kept cannabis as an illegal entity punishable by 6 months in prison.

There is no evidence that His Majesty used cannabis

it is said that while Lij Yasu was in power, it was questioned whether he could run the country while using khat and hashish as many Muslims did at the time; and frowned upon.

So if His Majesty didn't do it, frowned upon ones who did it, and kept it illegal. Why do Rastafari use ganja?


If ganja is a sacrament why do many Rastafari engage in the consumption of ganja for recreation and pleasure?

Do Rastafari have a ganja addiction?


ANYTHING being smoked produces CARBON MONOXIDE. This WILL give you cancer if you give it / if you live; long enough. To suggest smoking cannabis cannot lead to cancer tell that to the countless elder dreads who never touch cigarette and dead from lung cancer...

(people who vape and use steam chalice have somewhat of a Bligh)


Ganja is not an African tradition. Not directly anyway. it must be said there are countless ancient psychedelic herbs which ancient cultures did part take in the use of. Ganja however don't come to Rastafari through any redemptive African factor. GANJA come to Rastafari from INDIAN indentured servants during the late stages of slavery and post slavery. It's an Indian suppm. Rastafari are not Hindu neither Hare Krishna...
Furthermore the sensimilla (female flower: without seeds) originates in Mexico again, not with InI Rastafari not with InI African

If Rastafari is about natural living etc how can one explain the use of psychedelics? In the same category as magic mushrooms? How can one put fire on so many different foods and medicine and drugs yet not reality altering mind bending herbs? Do Rastafari not deal with reality?
I have even seen some put fire on caffeine yet support herbs

4;16 in the video onward - Prof I talks his opinion on ganja including how Peter Tosh shaved Prof I locks when Peter found out Prof didn't smoke herbs



(Disclaimer: Garveys Africa was the biggest advocate for daily regular heavy consumption of ganja for 11 years of His life and no stranger to the juggling)

I hope this post stick yuh

Messenger: Nesta1 Sent: 1/20/2019 5:46:48 AM

“The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the National Toxicology Program (NTP), and EPA have not classified carbon monoxide for human carcinogenicity (IARC 2009; IRIS 2009; NTP 2005).”
–Toxicological Profile for Carbon Monoxide, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

“Although there are no human or animal studies investigating carbon monoxide (CO) exposure and cancer, there is no information that would indicate it has any carcinogenic potential.”
– New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services

Notwithstanding the foregoing, there is substantial scientific evidence that repeated or habitual irritation of sensitive tissues in the body (e.g., bronchi, lungs, mucus membranes, etc.) by hot smoke from organic fuel combustion (1) increases the likelihood of anomalous cell mutations in these tissues due to the routine (increased frequency in the) stimulation of their natural healing/ repair processes, and (2) increases the risk of potentially malignant cancers occurring.

It’s not toxicologically or epidemiologically accurate to state the carbon monoxide or smoking “WILL give you cancer”, only that it may increase the statistical probability of a cancerous growth occurring (e.g., We all remember our Uncle So & so who smoked everyday of his life from when he was a teenager until he was 93 and then died from complications related to hip replacement surgery).

We live in a fallen world. Babylon is all around us. The air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food we eat all contain trace concentrations of synthetic chemicals produced by humans. If the natural, JAH-created herb of ganja is useful to you in meditations, in awakening a feeling of JAH more profoundly within you, and/or as a medication, then enjoy it (assuming that your body tolerates it well). If it’s not your thing and you find solace in other practices, that’s fine as well. Either way, it’s no problem unless, for some reason, using it damages your relationships with the people you love or stops you from pursuing your dreams. If that’s the case, then you’ve got a choice to make.

Messenger: Nesta1 Sent: 1/20/2019 6:38:09 AM

In a career spent investigating and cleanup all kinds of chemical contamination, i worked with many really fine toxicologists and epidemiologists from all over the world. Probably my favorite quote came from a professor of toxicology at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences:

"Life is a carcinogen. Do whatever you enjoy and stop worrying about getting cancer."

I&i have lived by that advice and no cancer yet, but, hey, there's still time left!

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 7:51:33 AM

Nesta your paper says there are no human studies of Carbon monoxide causing cancer. The lack of studies does not in any way mean disprove the fact Smoke causes cancer.

Clearly any study of the sort would be highly unethical / illegal in terms of exposing someone DIRECTLY to carbon monoxide in pure form.

However: carbon monoxide or not, it's known cannabis increases the risk of cancer as a matter of fact......

Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].Review article

Underner M, et al. Rev Mal Respir. 2014.

Show full citation


Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. 

Marijuana use and risk of lung cancer: a 40-year cohort study.

Callaghan RC, et al. Cancer Causes Control. 2013.

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PURPOSE: Cannabis (marijuana) smoke and tobacco smoke contain many of the same potent carcinogens, but a critical-yet unresolved-medical and public-health issue is whether cannabis smoking might facilitate the development of lung cancer. The current study aimed to assess the risk of lung cancer among young marijuana users.

METHODS: A population-based cohort study examined men (n = 49,321) aged 18-20 years old assessed for cannabis use and other relevant variables during military conscription in Sweden in 1969-1970. Participants were tracked until 2009 for incident lung cancer outcomes in nationwide linked medical registries. Cox regression modeling assessed relationships between cannabis smoking, measured at conscription, and the hazard of subsequently receiving a lung cancer diagnosis.

RESULTS: At the baseline conscription assessment, 10.5 % (n = 5,156) reported lifetime use of marijuana and 1.7 % (n = 831) indicated lifetime use of more than 50 times, designated as "heavy" use. Cox regression analyses (n = 44,284) found that such "heavy" cannabis smoking was significantly associated with more than a twofold risk (hazard ratio 2.12, 95 % CI 1.08-4.14) of developing lung cancer over the 40-year follow-up period, even after statistical adjustment for baseline tobacco use, alcohol use, respiratory conditions, and socioeconomic status.

CONCLUSION: Our primary finding provides initial longitudinal evidence that cannabis use might elevate the risk of lung cancer. In light of the widespread use of marijuana, especially among adolescents and young adults, our study provides important data for informing the risk-benefit calculus of marijuana smoking in medical, public-health, and drug-policy settings.

PMID 23846283 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 8:08:58 AM

Although we have so far addressed only ONE of the many points listed...... there are no fundamentals of Rastafari livity which supports SMOKE inhalation.

A number of Rastafari only consume ganja once every few months during a 'binghi' session whereby cannabis is consumed via STEAM chalice. No smoke, no regular heavy abuse. As many of the I Dem do so

Life is a carcinogen. The point is studies show ganja will 2 to 8 times increase your risk / speed up the process of lung cancer prostate and testicular cancer as a ratio compared to the general life risk. As my original post stated smoking WILL give you cancer if you live long enough

Many of your favourite reggae singers who never use tobacco are dead from cancer. Some people will be lucky and die of something else before cancer reaches. The point being, smoking will speed up the process of cancer developing in your body by twice or up to 8 times. This isn't insignificant.

We as RASTA people who eat and live ital..... cannot ignore this. What is ital about that? Naturality over poison. Life over death! To live in ignorance is not consciousness. To actively part take in something avoidably damaging to ones health which isn't essential for life; isn't ital.


The whole "Jah natural herb" argument is very odd to I. Heroin poppys and coca leaves are also natural. Did Jah put that on earth for unuh to turn crackout? Is this the only counter reasoning Rasta have to I original post?

Messenger: Nesta1 Sent: 1/20/2019 9:12:29 AM

In determining candidates for carcinogenicity studies, toxicologists consider anecdotal evidence of causation as well as structural mechanisms, based upon a substance’s chemistry, which may promote carcinogenicity. Carbon monoxide does not have sufficient carcinogenic potential to warrant further study. You can be sure that if a substance as commonplace as carbon monoxide had any appreciable potential to be carcinogenic, it would have the subject of extensive animal and/ human studies.

Underner M, et al., cited above, say substantively what I said : smoke “increases the risk of potentially malignant cancers occurring”. Without going into the technical issues, which are far too voluminous to cite, a statement like “Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer” is subject to an uncertainty of about one to three orders of magnitude depending upon the weight of evidence used to calculate it. Even the best weight of evidence makes the risk factor subject to an uncertainty of around one order of magnitude (e.g., 0.2 to 20). Other factors like an individual’s own immunological responses, and the variability of marijuana types, potencies and exposure rates cannot be factored into such general studies (e.g., many marijuana smokers today are exposed to far less smoke than people who consumed marijuana when i was a young man because the potency is so much greater today – often much more potent. Adjusting any toxicological study for drastically reduced consumption/exposure resulting from increased potency would skew the finding for carcinogenic risk far lower as one of the primary mechanisms of carcinogenesis – cellular mutation – is largely reduced by reducing the degree of recurring tissue irritation by extremely hot smoke).

The point is that toxicology is a very imprecise science (just ask any toxicologist).

The highest level of carcinogenicity that can be assigned to a substance by U.S. EPA/ATSDR toxicologists is “Group A: ‘Human Carcinogen' " meaning: “There is enough evidence to conclude that it CAN cause cancer in humans”.

The assertion that smoking WILL give you cancer, is categorically incorrect. Sorry, that’s just the limitations of the science. You cannot scientifically support that kind of absolute when it comes to this type of epidemiology.

The best that scientists can determine is that the exposure to a given substance can increase the risk for certain types of cancer. The good news is: That’s only a theoretical risk or probability. The bad news is: You’re exposed to a bunch of substances and environmental factors all of the time which you don’t even know about that increase you cancer risk.

The important thing to bear in mind here is that we are all exposed to a myriad of substances and physical phenomena (e.g., solar radiation) during to course of our lives and it is foolish to live your life running scared from cancer. A study conducted by a group of U.S. toxicologists once concluded that about half of the naturally-occurring chemicals in fruits and vegetables could be classified a potentially carcinogenic. Should we stop eating them? Of course not. Life is a series of choices and trade-offs. Stress is probably the No. 1 underlying cause or illness and death in much of the industrialized world. If a spliff a day keeps the doctor away and keeps a man’s stress level down, then by all means twist up a big one (even though you probably can’t finish it if its that super bud!).

You’ll have to forgive me, but having spent a 37 or so years cleaning up all kinds of chemical contamination sites (while getting exposed to many of the chemicals at them myself) and having heard every scare story you can imagine about chemicals, environmental factors, and carcinogenicity; i long ago abandon any fear of such things.

Enjoy life. Don’t fret about scientists and their studies. And don't bother to change your lifestyle every time they come out with a new carcinogen of the month. If you’re scared of ganja smoke, then don’t smoke it. But if you like it and it does you some good, then enjoy it and, for goodness sake, don't give cancer a second thought. You don't worry about getting killed in an airplane crash every time you fly somewhere and yet it is a scientific fact the 100% of the people killed in commercial airliner crashes were traveling by air.

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 11:51:32 AM

And having spent 15 years IN the field of medicine your preaching to the choir

I showed you up to date studies of over 40000 people who accounting for none tobacco or alcohol or dietary differences, show cannabis users to have up to DOUBLE the risk than normal for developing cancers. Other studies have shown up to 8 times the risk. The point is, there is ALWAYS a higher risk.

I can say that SMOKE will cause cancer if you live long enough as if you live long enough EVERYONE will get cancer. This may take 400 years it may take 100 years it may take 40 years. But it's a certainty if you ask any oncologist. The point of these studies is to determine whether cannabis and smoke will speed this process up and they have been conclusive to determine YES albeit by varying amounts.

Get out of the mode of debate for a minute and honestly tell me you are trying to say smoke is healthy?

Or smoke is ital? Then why do certain RASTA choose steam chalice?

This thread isn't a debate on carcinogens it's a debate on whether RASTA should part take in the regular smoking of cannabis despite smoke in general being harmful. Tobacco being harmful which many mix with cannabis. The papers it is rolled in being harmful. Haile Selassie I deeming it illegal. And being a mind bending reality changing drug. How is any of that in line with the livity of Rastafari or example of His Majesty?


Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 11:59:49 AM

More evidence behind the statement cannabis smoke increases the risk of cancer

he European respiratory journal

Author Manuscript

Europe PMC Funders


Sarah Aldington, Matire Harwood, [...], and Richard Beasley

Additional article information



To determine the risk of lung cancer associated with cannabis smoking.


A case-control study of lung cancer in adults ≤;55 years of age was conducted in eight district health boards in New Zealand. Cases were identified from the New Zealand Cancer Registry and hospital databases. Controls were randomly selected from the electoral roll, with frequency matching to cases in 5-year age groups and district health boards. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to assess possible risk factors including cannabis use. The relative risk of lung cancer associated with cannabis smoking was estimated by logistic regression.


There were 79 cases of lung cancer and 324 controls. The risk of lung cancer increased 8% (95% CI 2% to 15%) for each joint-year of cannabis smoking, after adjustment for confounding variables including cigarette smoking, and 7% (95% CI 5% to 9%) for each pack-year of cigarette smoking, after adjustment for confounding variables including cannabis smoking. The highest tertile of cannabis use was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer RR=5.7 (95% CI 1.5 to 21.6), after adjustment for confounding variables including cigarette smoking.


Long term cannabis use increases the risk of lung cancer in young adults.

Keywords: Cannabis, tobacco, lung cancer, case-control


Cannabis smoking may have a greater potential than tobacco smoking to cause lung cancer.[1-4] Cannabis smoke is qualitatively similar to tobacco smoke, although it contains up to twice the concentration of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons.[1] Cannabis is less densely packed than tobacco cigarettes, and tends to be smoked without filters [2] to a smaller butt size,[3] leading to higher concentrations of smoke inhaled. Furthermore, smokers of cannabis inhale more deeply and hold their breath for longer,[4] facilitating the deposition of the carcinogenic products in the lower respiratory tract. These factors are likely to be responsible for the five-fold greater absorption of carbon monoxide from a cannabis joint, compared with a tobacco cigarette of similar size despite similar carbon monoxide concentrations in the smoke inhaled.[4] Several studies have demonstrated pre-cancerous histological [5,6] and molecular [7] abnormalities in the respiratory tracts of cannabis smokers, and the carcinogenic effects of cannabis smoke have been demonstrated in vitro [8] and in different in vivo animal models.[1,9,10] Conversely, there is also evidence that delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol may have anti-carcinogenic effects.

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 12:04:22 PM

Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition.

The Preventable Causes of Cancer

The development of a cancer generally requires many steps, each governed by multiple factors—some dependent on the genetic constitution of the individual, others dependent on his or her environment and way of life. A certain irreducible background incidence of cancer is to be expected regardless of circumstances: mutations can never be absolutely avoided, because they are an inescapable consequence of fundamental limitations on the accuracy of DNAreplication, as discussed in Chapter 5. If a human could live long enough, it is inevitable that at least one of his or her cells would eventually accumulate a set of mutations sufficient for cancer to develop

And unuh want to speed up the process by denying logic denying LIFE and Rastafari teachings toward being ital to fuel your ganja addiction

Messenger: GARVEYS AFRICA Sent: 1/20/2019 12:10:02 PM

Ganja will ALSO cause COPD, BRONCHITIS, EMPHYSEMA...... As with all other smoked product

Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].Review article

Underner M, et al. Rev Mal Respir. 2013.

Show full citation


Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking.

Marijuana and lung diseases.Review article

Joshi M, et al. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2014.

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PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke.

RECENT FINDINGS: Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development.

SUMMARY: There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.

Effects of cannabis on pulmonary structure, function and symptoms.

Aldington S, et al. Thorax. 2007.

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BACKGROUND: Cannabis is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide. Long-term use of cannabis is known to cause chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction, but the prevalence of macroscopic emphysema, the dose-response relationship and the dose equivalence of cannabis with tobacco has not been determined.

METHODS: A convenience sample of adults from the Greater Wellington region was recruited into four smoking groups: cannabis only, tobacco only, combined cannabis and tobacco and non-smokers of either substance. Their respiratory status was assessed using high-resolution CT (HRCT) scanning, pulmonary function tests and a respiratory and smoking questionnaire. Associations between respiratory status and cannabis use were examined by analysis of covariance and logistic regression.

RESULTS: 339 subjects were recruited into the four groups. A dose-response relationship was found between cannabis smoking and reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity ratio and specific airways conductance, and increased total lung capacity. For measures of airflow obstruction, one cannabis joint had a similar effect to 2.5-5 tobacco cigarettes. Cannabis smoking was associated with decreased lung density on HRCT scans. Macroscopic emphysema was detected in 1/75 (1.3%), 15/92 (16.3%), 17/91 (18.9%) and 0/81 subjects in the cannabis only, combined cannabis and tobacco, tobacco alone and non-smoking groups, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cannabis was associated with a dose-related impairment of large airways function resulting in airflow obstruction and hyperinflation. In contrast, cannabis smoking was seldom associated with macroscopic emphysema. The 1:2.5-5 dose equivalence between cannabis joints and tobacco cigarettes for adverse effects on lung function is of major public health significance

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Haile Selassie I